A urinary tract infection ( UTI ) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. The most common cause of UTI are bacteria from the bowel that live on the skin near the rectum or in the vagna which can spread and enter the urinary tract through the urethra. Urinary tract infections usually develop first in the lower urinary tract (urethra, bladder) and, if not treated, progress to the upper urinary tract (ureters, kidneys). The urinary tract is normally sterile. Uncomplicated UTI involves the urinary bladder in a host without underlying renal or neurologic disease. In fact, half of all women will develop a UTI during their lifetimes, and many will experience more than one. It can also travel from the bladder into the ureter and kidneys. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection which is also often called cystitis. Another kind of UTI is a kidney infection, known as pyelonephritis, and is much more serious.
Women are most at risk of developing a UTI. Pregnant women are at increased risk of having a bladder infection progress and develop into a kidney infection. About 40% of women and 12% of men have a urinary tract infection at some time in their life. Sometimes kidney or bladder stones can cause repeated infections. In rare cases, bacteria can reach the kidneys through the bloodstream. Frequent and complete voiding has been associated with a reduction in the incidence of UTI. Infections of the urinary tract are the second most common type of infection in the body. UTIs may cause different symptoms in different people. You may feel a burning when you urinate. You may need to urinate more often, sometimes 30 to 60 minutes later. If you do not take care of a bladder infection, it can spread to your kidneys. A kidney infection is serious and can cause permanent damage.
Causes of Urinary tract infection
The common causes and risk factor’s of Urinary tract infection include the following:
The most common cause of UTI are bacteria from the bowel that live on the skin.
Suppressed immune system.
People with conditions that block (obstruct) the urinary tract, such as kidney stones.
The bacteria can travel up the urethra to the bladder, where they can grow and cause an infection.
Some women may be born with genes that make them more likely to get UTIs over and over again.
Microorganisms called Chlamydia and Mycoplasma may also cause UTIs in both men and women.
Symptoms of Urinary tract infection
Some symptoms related to Urinary tract infection are as follows:
Loss of appetite.
Nausea and vomiting.
Frequent or urgent need to urinate.
Need to urinate at night.
Pus or blood in urine.
Cloudy and foul-smelling urine
Lower abdominal pain.
Treatment of Urinary tract infection
Here is list of the methods for treating Urinary tract infection:
UTIs are treated with antibacterial drugs. The choice of drug and length of treatment depend on the patient’s history and the urine tests that identify the offending bacteria.
Various drugs are available to relieve the pain of a UTI. A heating pad or a warm bath may also help.
Oral antibiotics usually can treat kidney infections ( pyelonephritis ), although you may need brief hospitalization and a short course of intravenous (IV) antibiotics if you are too ill or nauseated to take medicine by mouth (oral medication).
Longer treatment is also needed by patients with infections caused by Mycoplasma or Chlamydia, which are usually treated with tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, or doxycycline .
Use of low-dose antibiotics on a daily basis may be recommended to prevent UTIs if you get frequent infections.