To achieve goals of organization, the organization should make sure that their employers engaged with them should be in a effective and efficient manner. To ensure this motivation, is a key factor. Increasing employee productivity is the main purpose of the activities carried out by different human resource developments nowadays. To bring different motivational concepts human resource developments consults with other departments in the organization.
To increase the motivation of the workers, its close connection with the performance should be understood at first. Looking closely at performance one can observe that the people prefer the performance rather than the work results. If an employee is willing to perform the work that is assigned to him then we can know he/she is motivated by that work. Motivation is associated with the persistence,direction and arousal within the employee to do his assigned work.
Douglas McGregor was amongst the first persons to propose this idea of motivation. He covered topics regarding different human behaviors. His theories of Y and X clearly explained this. He represented lazy people by X. These people avoided taking responsibilities, and they worked only when they were threatened. While those people who naturally want to work are represented by Theory Y.
Both the theories are different and differences are revealed when you view them in details. Theory X managers believe that since people are lazy, they need to be coordinated and disciplined. They are not smart enough to do good work. They have to be motivated and encouraged to do good work. Theory Y managers believe that people actually want to work and there is no need to coordinate or control them. Since they are smart enough, external influence is not required. They are self-motivated and will do good work on their own.
It is a well accepted fact that opinions of people, act as a major factor for their behavior. Opinions are always influenced by each ones personal experience.This same fact can be applied as a basis for motivational theories also. According to McGregor, who is a motivational expert,states that managers can be classified as Theory X and Theory Y managers, based on their opinions.
There are theory X managers in almost every organization. They can be recognized by their lack of trust towards their employees, whom they believe should not be entrusted with responsibilities. Theory X managers perceive people as lazy and feel that their employees must be motivated to perform. They either attempt to motivate the employees through positive actions – rewarding the employees if they excel in their tasks, offering incentives, etc. or they threaten the employees, trying to instill in them the fear of losing their job. These negative motivational methods are focused on punishing lack of performance.
Theory Y managers on the other hand think that people are mature, self-disciplined, and responsible. As such, they need not use pressure tactics or instill fear in the minds of the employees to get the work done promptly. Theory Y Managers think that threatening to sack employees is not the solution for getting things done on time. They need not worry for the better performance of the organization when the employees are dedicated and ready to shoulder the responsibility.
In an overall view of an organization, existing in the present corporate and business environment, we can find that both theory y and theory x people coexist. There is no particular organization with exclusively, theory y or theory x people. They coexist almost in every sphere of activities. Hence it is difficult to pinpoint each set in a given group.