Attention Deficit Disorder is a chronic neurological disorder, which is predominantly diagnosed in children. Statistics estimates that 2-5 % of the population is affected by ADD, considering the rare possibility for cases of Adult ADD. ADD is one of the disturbing pediatric disorders in the United States, since 5 million are affected by this disorder. Attention deficit disorder is the old name of the disease with characteristic symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which is later renamed as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD HD). The disorder is classified into three distinct subtypes, ADHD predominantly combined type, ADHD predominantly inattentive type and ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, on the basis of the pronounced characteristic symptom.
Children with ADD show distractibility, forgetfulness, impulse control, and disorganization. It is often misdiagnosed as any learning disability disease, however, pervasive symptoms for six months must be suspected. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders describe particular symptoms for the children belonging to each type of ADD. The inattentive type shows the symptom such as careless mistakes due to inattention, trouble in playing games that require concentration, failure to follow instructions, avoiding school projects and seminars, forgetfulness, distractibility and recurring losses. The hyperactivity-impulsive type shows symptoms such as restlessness, difficulty in staying seated, wanting to run and climb all the time, answering before a question has been completed, and excessive speech. The combined type will exhibit both types of symptoms.
Usually, children with ADD will have certain learning disabilities, anxiety, depression, low thyroid, and tendency to violate rules and regulations. It is quite interesting that the features of gifted children are often misinterpreted as symptoms of ADD. In adults, ADD is characteristic with symptoms such as low esteem, procrastination, boredom, anxiety, depression, mood swings, relationship problems, forgetfulness, restlessness, sleep problems, and addiction.
Treatments for ADD are not effective to provide a complete cure, to date, since the exact cause of the disease is not identified. The only known fact is that the disease is brought on because of some sort of neurological problem. It is suspected that impairment to the neurotransmitters can be the possible cause. Physicians prescribe several medications, which help the ADD patients to control their symptoms effectively. The simulative medications include methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and benzphetamine. The brand names such as Ritalin and Adderall are some of the widely accepted drugs for ADD treatment. The psychotherapies such as behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, relaxation therapy and neurofeedback are suggested to improve the social behavior of ADD patients. In addition, nutritional supplements such as zinc, amino acids, and fatty acids such as Omega 3, are recommended to enhance the condition of ADD patients.