Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. There are 20.8 million children and adults in the United States, or 7% of the population, who have diabetes. While an estimated 14.6 million have been diagnosed with diabetes, unfortunately, 6.2 million people are unaware that they have the disease. Diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications (hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperosmolar coma) may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of dialysis in developed world adults), retinal damage , nerve damage (of several kinds), and microvascular damage, which may cause erectile dysfunction (impotence) and poor healing. About 3 to 8 percent of pregnant women in the United States develop gestational diabetes. As with type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes occurs more often in some ethnic groups and among women with a family history of diabetes.
Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans. About 54 million Americans have prediabetes. Diabetes, without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus, but there are several rarer conditions also named diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the bodys system for fighting infection turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. About 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. This form of diabetes is most often associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity, and certain ethnicities. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. About 65 percent of deaths among those with diabetes are attributed to heart disease and stroke. Uncontrolled diabetes can complicate pregnancy, and birth defects are more common in babies born to women with diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to develop rapidly, over a couple of weeks, and are more severe. In type 2 diabetes, symptoms develop slowly and are usually milder. At least 65 percent of those with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke. Diabetes treatment depends on the type and severity of the diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. Regular exercise is especially important for people with diabetes. It helps with blood sugar control, weight loss, and high blood pressure. People with diabetes who exercise are less likely to experience a heart attack or stroke than diabetics who do not exercise regularly. Metformin this is often the first medicine that is advised for type 2 diabetes. Sulphonylureas for example, glibelclamide, gliclazide, glimerpirizide, glipizide, gliquidone, increase the amount of insulin produced by your pancreas.