A retinal detachment is a serious and sight-threatening event. Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. It is usually affects middle-aged or older people. Retinal detachment occurs when the retina separates from the choroid. The retina is a thin layer of light-sensitive tissue on the back wall of the eye. The optical system of the eye focuses light on the retina much like light is focused on the film in a camera.
The retina is a thin layer of light-sensitive tissue on the back wall of the eye. The optical system of the eye focuses light on the retina much like light is focused on the film in a camera. The retina translates that focused image into neural impulses and sends them to the brain via the optic nerve. Occasionally, posterior vitreous detachment, injury or trauma to the eye or head may cause a small tear in the retina. The tear allows vitreous fluid to seep through it under the retina, and peel it away like a bubble in wallpaper.
Retinal detachment can occur more frequently after surgery for cataracts. The estimate of risk of retinal detachment after cataract surgery is 5 to 16 per 1000 cataract operations. There are three different types of retinal detachment. First is rhegmatogenous a tear or break in the retina allows fluid to get under the retina and separate it from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the pigmented cell layer that nourishes the retina. These types of retinal detachments are the most common. Second is tractional. In Tractional type of detachment, scar tissue on the retina’s surface contracts and causes the retina to separate from the RPE. This type of detachment is less common.Third is exudative-frequently caused by retinal diseases, including inflammatory disorders and injury/trauma to the eye.
In this type, fluid leaks into the area below the retina, but there are no tears or breaks in the retina. There are several methods of treating a detached retina which all depend on finding and closing the holes (tears) which have formed in the retina. Small holes and tears are treated with laser surgery or a freeze treatment called cryopexy. These procedures are usually performed in the doctor’s office. During laser surgery tiny burns are made around the hole to “weld” the retina back into place. Cryopexy freezes the area around the hole and helps reattach the retina. Scleral buckle surgery is an established treatment in which the eye surgeon sews one or more silicone bands (bands, tyres) to the outside of the eyeball.Vitrectomy is an increasingly widely used treatment for retinal detachment.
Treatment for Retinal Detachment
An eye surgeon must reattach a detached retina. Laser photocoagulation, a method of sealing off leaking blood vessels and destroying new blood vessel growth with a laser beam, is another way to reattach the retina.
In rare cases where other types of retinal detachment surgeries are either inappropriate or unsuccessful, silicone oil may be used to reattach the retina. The vitreous gel is removed and replaced with silicone oil, which presses the retina into place.