Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age. It is the most common hormonal reproductive problem in women of childbearing age. This can affect fertility and pregnancy. It can also cause male-type body changes. Irregular or heavy periods may signal the condition in adolescence, or polycystic ovary syndrome may become apparent later when a woman has difficulty becoming pregnant. Women with PCOS may produce too much insulin, which signals their ovaries to release extra male hormones. It is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive age women. As many as 30 percent of women have some characteristics of the syndrome. Polycystic ovary disease is characterized by enlarged ovaries with multiple small cysts, an abnormally high number of follicles at various states of maturation, and a thick, scarred capsule surrounding each ovary. PCOS is also associated with peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and obesity amplifies the degree of both abnormalities.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is now recognized as a heterogeneous syndrome. The syndrome was originally reported by Stein and Leventhal in 1935 when they described a group of women with amenorrhea, infertility, hirsutism (unwanted hair growth in women), and enlarged polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS frequently have a mother or sister with PCOS. But there is not yet enough evidence to say there is a genetic link to this disorder. Many women with PCOS have a weight problem. If PCOS is not treated properly, it can put a girl at risk for lots of problems, such as infertility, excessive hair growth, acne, diabetes, heart disease, abnormal bleeding from the uterus, and cancer. Polycystic ovaries are enlarged bilaterally and have a smooth thickened capsule that is avascular. On cut sections, subcapsular follicles in various stages of atresia are seen in the peripheral part of the ovary.
Causes of Polycystic ovary syndrome
The common causes and risk factor’s of Polycystic ovary syndrome include the following:
No one knows the exact cause of this syndrom.
An imbalance in the hormones (chemical messengers) in your brain and your ovaries.
Family history of Polycystic ovary syndrome.
Genetics may be a factor.
Symptoms of Polycystic ovary syndrome
Some sign and symptoms related to Polycystic ovary syndrome are as follows:
Male-pattern baldness or thinning hair.
Weight gain, even obesity.
Insulin resistance and diabetes.
Patches of dark skin on the back of your neck and other areas, called acanthosis nigricans.
Decreased breast size.
High blood sugar (hyperglycemia).
Treatment of Polycystic ovary syndrome
Here is list of the methods for treating Polycystic ovary syndrome:
Weight reduction is associated with normalization of hormonal disturbances and the resumption of regular ovulation. It also has a beneficial impact on the consequences of PCOS (eg, cardiovascular diseases, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia).
For women who don’t want to become pregnant, birth control pills can regulate menstrual cycles, reduce male hormone levels, and help to clear acne.
Cosmetic treatment of facial hirsutism with electroepilation and laser hair removal has also been studied and found to be beneficial.
Hormone treatment to suppress ovarian activity is a reasonable choice if the patient does not want to conceive now, and is having problems with excessive hair growth.
Metformin can be taken with fertility medications and helps to make PCOS women ovulate on lower doses of medication.
If medications don’t help you become pregnant, your doctor may recommend an outpatient surgery called laparoscopic ovarian drilling.