Parkinson’s Disease – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Parkinson’s Disease is a disease mostly affecting middle-aged and elderly people characterized by tremors and rigid, slow movement. It is also known as PD or Parkinson disease. Early symptoms of PD are subtle and occur gradually. Parkinson’s disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. The disease is both chronic, meaning it persists over a long period of time, and progressive, meaning its symptoms grow worse over time. Parkinson’s disease was named after Scottish physician James Parkinson, who published a description of the condition. Cardinal features include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. In some people the disease progresses more quickly than in others. It is characterized by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement ( bradykinesia ), and in extreme cases, a loss of physical movement ( akinesia ). PD usually affects people over the age of 50. The risk of PD increases with age, so analysts expect the financial and public health impact of this disease to increase as the population gets older. In Parkinson’s, cells are destroyed in part of the brain stem – the substantia nigra, which sends out fibers to the corpus stratia, gray and white bands of tissue in both sides of the brain. Parkinson’s disease is called idiopathic Parkinson’s because the cause is unknown. In the other forms of parkinsonism, a cause is known or suspected.

Causes of Parkinson’s disease

The common causes and risk factor’s of Parkinson’s disease include the following:

The exact cause of Parkinson’s disease is not known.

Pesticides or other chemicals.

A combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Environmental toxins.

Proximity to industrial plants or quarries.

Exposure to an environmental toxin. .

Having one or more close relatives with Parkinson’s.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

Some sign and symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease are as follows:

Loss of automatic movements.

Fatigue.

Difficulty swallowing.

Nightmares.

Depression.

Micrographia (small, cramped handwriting).

Difficulty walking or buttoning clothes.

Tremor.

Slowed motion (bradykinesia).

Treatment of Parkinson’s disease

Here is list of the methods for treating Parkinson’s disease:

Parlodel is a useful drug for Parkinson’s disease.

Tolcapone

Pramipexole.

Trihexyphenidyl.

Selegiline (Eldepryl): This drug, used with or without carbidopa-levodopa therapy, helps prevent the breakdown of both naturally occurring dopamine and dopamine formed from levodopa.

Other treatment approaches, including general lifestyle modifications (rest and exercise), physical therapy, speech therapy, will be covered in Maintaining Optimal Wellness.

Various forms of surgical treatment are available to control movement disorders when medications are ineffective.