Oppositional defiant disorder is reported to affect between 10 percent and 15 percent of children and adolescents in the general population. Oppositional Defiant Disorder caused of environment, genetics, and medical problems. Children with ODD show a pattern of stubbornness and frequently test limits, even in early childhood. In younger children, ODD is more common in boys. The techniques used by parents and authority figures on these children bring about the oppositional defiant behavior. Oppositional defiant disorder often occurs along with other behavioral or mental health problems such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety or depression. The symptoms of ODD may be hard to distinguish from those of other behavioral or mental health problems. Treatment of ODD may include is Parent management training (PMT) is recommended for families of children with ODD because it has been demonstrated to affect negative interactions that repeatedly occur between the children and their parents. PMT consists of procedures with which parents are trained to change their own behaviors and thereby alter their child’s problem behavior in the home. Individual Psychotherapy to develop more effective anger management, Family Psychotherapy to improve communication, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to assist problem solving and decrease negativity, and Social Skills Training to increase flexibility and improve frustration tolerance with peers.
Causes of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Common causes and risk factors of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The family’s response to the child’s style
Genetic component that when coupled with certain environmental conditions.
Biochemical or neurological factor.
Signs and Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Common sign and symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Acting touchy and easily annoyed
Anger and resentment.
Spiteful or vindictive behavior
Refusal to comply with adult requests or rules
Deliberate annoyance of other people
Frequent temper tantrums
Argumentativeness with adults
Blaming others for mistakes or misbehavior
Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Common Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Stimulant medication is indicated only when oppositional defiant disorder coexists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Parent management training focuses on teaching the parents more effective, specific techniques for handling the child’s opposition and defiance.
Family therapy is often focused on making changes within the family system, such as improving communication skills and family interactions.
Peer group therapy is often focused on developing social skills and interpersonal skills.
“Wrap around” services, which include a full-day school program and home-based therapy services to maintain progress in the home setting. Thus, effective treatment can include resources from several agencies, and coordination is critical.