Nursing from the beginning has existed in various forms in every culture, while the definition of nursing and its practice has changed significantly over time. The oldest form of the word is found in the English language from the 14th century and referred to a woman employed to suckle and generally care for a younger child. In the 15th century, nursing developed in the idea of looking after or advising another, and not necessarily meaning a woman looking after a child. The idea of nourishing in the broadest sense refers in modern nursing to promoting quality of life.
When this concept took its birth, nuns and the military often provided nursing-like services. The religious and military roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries.
During the World War, a significant development in nursing history arose when Florence Nightingale, working to improve conditions of soldiers in the Crimean War, laid the foundation stone of professional nursing with the principles.
New Zealand was the first country to regulate nurses nationally, with the implementation of the Nurses Registration Act on the 12th of September, 1901. Ellen Dougherty was the first Registered Nurse. North Carolina was the first state in the United States to pass a nursing licensure law in 1903.
Today Nurses are often in key management roles within health services and hold research posts at universities.
Nursing as a profession
The aim of the worldwide nursing community is to develop the profession guided by continuing education based on nursing research, and to regulate standards of competency and ethics. There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse, but all involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice and training in clinical skills.
The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that outlines professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. In almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the profession is regulated at national or state level.
Nursing practice is mainly the caring relationship between the nurse and the patient in their care. In providing nursing care, nurses are implementing the nursing care plan, which is based on a nursing assessment.
Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles.
International Council of Nurses
The NCLEX tests are required to receive professional licensure in the field of nursing and are created by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN). The NCLEX means National Council Licensure Examination.
The NCLEX tests are designed to be one of the final hurdles in nursing career. Consequently, the questions focus on the ability of the candidate to make decisions in various patient care scenarios under critical conditions. The NCLEX test requires that the candidate understand the basic principles of nursing and apply this to different elements of patient safety management.
The key NCLEX testing tips are stated as follows:
1. Assess, Assess, Assess: In almost all cases something can be done before contacting the MD.
2. Prioritize: Delegate to the appropriate support personal and prioritize your tasks.
3. Review Medical Terminology: Understand the definition of all medical abbreviations and terminology used in the NCLEX questions.
Schools of Nursing:
Aga Khan University School of Nursing:
Established in 1980, Aga Khan University School of Nursing (AKU-SON) was the first academic component of AKU and its Faculty of Health Sciences. The School offers several programs in nursing, including a three-year Diploma Program, Pakistan’s first four year BScN and a two-year Post RN BScN, as well as the first Master of Science in Nursing (MScN) which started in October 2001. Four-year BScN and MScN are the only program of its kind in Pakistan.
Since its commencement, AKU-SON has played a leading role in establishing an internationally acceptable model for nursing education and practice in Pakistan, and has trained 2,232 nurses
Pakistan became the first Muslim country to achieve chapter status in the Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI) global network when, in 2000, Aga Khan University School of Nursing Honour Society received its Charter.
Pakistan Institute of medical Sciences:
The School of Nursing is one of the components of the Pakistan Institute of medical Sciences Islamabad. The School of Nursing organized in September 14 1987. The School of Nursing is affiliated with Nursing Board, Lahore-Pakistan. The total covered area will be 19942Sq.f.t and that of hostel will be 43485sq.ft.
Duration of basic nursing is for three years and that of midwifery is one year. During the course the courses related to the medical profession and nursing care has been taught.
School of Nursing granted remuneration to the students according to existing government rules. School of Nursing provides accommodation facilities to the students subject to its availability.
Ziauddin Medical University:
The School of Nursing was established in 1986 and received recognition by the Pakistan Nursing Council in the same year while the School of Midwifery was recognized in 1990.
The program is designed to produce competent nurses and midwives equipped with the necessary knowledge and skill to contribute to the improvement of health of individual(s) and family(s) in the hospital and community by applying the principles of nursing and primary health care. Students experienced clinical training in community and hospitals including Ziauddin Medical University hospitals.
Academic Programs Offered:
Diploma in General Nursing (3 years)
Diploma in Midwifery (One Year (Post Basic)
Diploma in General Nursing Program (18 months)
Diploma in Pupil Midwifery (18 months)