The blood contains several different types of cells, each with an important job in the body. The originator of all blood cells is an immature cell known as the stem cell. The ultimate effect of this “malignant” upheaval is erosion and organ dysfunction. There are 2 major subtypes of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes (often called B cells and T cells).Red blood cells carry oxygen to, and carbon dioxide from, all bodily tissues in order to maintain effective organ function. Cancer is a disorder characterized by transformation of normal cells to abnormal cells that grow and multiply uncontrollably. When only one site is detectable, it is referred to as a solitary plasmacytoma, and these respond dramatically to local radiation or surgical excision. Instead they make too much of one kind of immunoglobulin that can cause problems.
Causes of Myeloma
The common Causes of Myeloma :
Multiple myeloma is characterized by the excessive growth and malfunction of plasma cells in the bone marrow.
Radiation has been linked to the development of myeloma.
Risk factors include certain kinds of behavior such as cigarette smoking for lung cancer, inherited (genetic) traits, and exposure to cancer-causing agents in the environment.
Working in the petrol, rubber or leather industries.
The Mayo clinic found disease in 8 siblings out of 440 patients; these 8 siblings had different heavy chains but the same light chains.
It appears that patients who have been involved in the agricultural, chemical, or radiology industries are at higher risk of developing the disease.
Symptoms of Myeloma
Some Symptoms of Myeloma :
Nausea or constipation
Increased susceptibility to infection
Feeling very thirsty
Bone or back pain
Symptoms of anemia (such as tiredness, shortness of breath, and fatigue)
Feeling weak and very tired
Treatment of Myeloma
Chemotherapy is the most common treatment for myeloma.
Biological therapy (using the body’s immune system to fight cancer).
Radiotherapy aims to damage the abnormal cells and stop their growth with radiation from X-rays. This treatment is very important.
Induction – focuses on reducing the amount of disease and achieving remission
Stem cell (bone marrow) transplantation .