Multiple Sclerosis(MS)also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Multiple sclerosis affects neurons, the cells of the brain and spinal cord that carry information, create thought and perception, and allow the brain to control the body. Surrounding and protecting some of these neurons is a fatty layer known as the myelin sheath, which helps neurons carry electrical signals. MS causes gradual destruction of myelin (demyelination) and transection of neuron axons in patches throughout the brain and spinal cord. The name multiple sclerosis refers to the multiple scars (or scleroses) on the myelin sheaths. This scarring causes symptoms which vary widely depending upon which signals are interrupted. Multiple sclerosis (MS) usually affects woman more than men. The disorder most commonly begins between ages 20 and 40, but can strike at any age. People with a family history of MS and those who live in a geographical area with a higher incidence rate for MS have a higher risk of the disease.
Multiple sclerosis affects an estimated 300,000 people in the United States and probably more than 1 million people around the world including twice as many women as men. Most people experience their first signs or symptoms between ages 20 and 40. MS can cause a variety of symptoms, including is changes in sensation, visual problems, muscle weakness, depression, difficulties with coordination and speech, severe fatigue, cognitive impairment, problems with balance, overheating, and pain. Multiple sclerosis may take several different forms, with new symptoms occurring either in discrete attacks or slowly accruing over time. Between attacks, symptoms may resolve completely, but permanent neurologic problems often persist, especially as the disease advances. MS will cause impaired mobility and disability in more severe cases.
Causes of Multiple Sclerosis
3.Damage to the Blood-Brain-Barrier.
4.Biochemical events in utero.
6.Diet and vitamin deficiencies
Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis
4.Difficulties with coordination and speech.
Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
Several types of therapy have proven to be helpful. Different therapies are used for patients experiencing acute attacks, for patients who have the relapsing-remitting subtype. Interferon medications derived from human cytokines which help regulate the immune system. Physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and support groups can help improve the person’s outlook, reduce depression, maximize function, and improve coping skills. Lioresal (Baclofen), tizanidine (Zanaflex), or a benzodiazepine may be used to reduce muscle spasticity. Steroids are given to decrease the severity of attacks when they occur. These shut the immune system down to stop cells from causing inflammation. Mitixantrone medication is effective, but is limited by cardiac toxicity. Interferon beta-1b (Betaseron) and interferon beta-1a (Avonex, Rebif) are genetically engineered copies of proteins that occur naturally in your body. They help fight viral infection and regulate your immune system. Glatiramer (Copaxone) medication is an alternative to beta interferons if you have relapsing remitting MS. Doctors believe that glatiramer works by blocking your immune system’s attack on myelin.