Mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent or persistent superficial infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails with Candida organisms, usually Candida albicans. Mucocutaneous candidiasis affects males and females alike and usually develops in childhood. MC usually manifests in infancy or early childhood (60-80% of cases), with a mean age of onset of 3 years. Delayed or adult onset of the disease is reported and can be associated with thymoma, myasthenia gravis, and bone marrow abnormalities.Mucocutaneous candidiasis is also known as Candida Related Complex. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare condition caused by fungus.
The fungus may cause mouth infections (thrush) as well as infections of the scalp; skin; nails; and membranes lining the mouth, eyes, digestive tract, and reproductive tract. Symptoms may also be included hoarseness, dysphagia, and hemoptysis. There was poor correlation between oral lesions and laryngeal involvement. In case of Mucocutaneous candidiasis, the body is less able to fight fungal infections, including yeast infections. These disorders may be confined to the cutaneous surface, with little propensity for systemic involvement. The disorder may affect one nail or cause a disfiguring rash that covers the face and scalp. Hair may fall out. Hepatitis and chronic lung disorders sometimes develop. Mucocutaneous candidiasis patients have an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders.
Treatment falls into 3 main categories: antifungal agents, immunologic therapies, and combination therapy. Many good antifungal agents are available and usually are effective; however, upon cessation of therapy, most patients relapse. Oral ketoconazole and injections of thymosin and levamisole can have a positive effect. Acyclovir may be indicated in viral infections. Iron replacement therapy (administered orally or I.M.) may also be necessary. Most patients with Mucocutaneous candidiasis are treated with chronic that are specific for fungal infections. Miconazole and nystatin are sometimes useful but ultimately fail to control this infection. Immunotherapies are under investigation and have been used with some success. Terbinafine has been used effectively against mucocutaneous candidiasis disorders.
Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Treatment Tips
1. Fluconazole should also be effective treatment of mucocutaneous candidiasis.
2. Miconazole and nystatin are useful but ultimately fail to control this infection.
3. Microscopy and culture of skin swabs and scrapings confirm the presence of organisms.
4. Terbinafine has been used effectively against mucocutaneous candidiasis disorders.
5. Immunotherapies are used with some cases.