Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone (called T3 and T4). It controls your metabolism , which is how your body turns food into energy. Hyperthyroidism can significantly accelerate your body’s metabolism, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability. It also affects your heart, muscles, bones, and cholesterol. Other rare causes include e xcess dietary iodine consumption, abuse of thyroid hormone medication when patients overdose on thyroid hormone pills (either accidentally or purposefully because they think it will help them lose weight – a fallacy because taking too much thyroid hormone can be dangerous and life threatening), overactive metastatic thyroid cancer, or rare diseases of the ovary or testicles that can cause the thyroid to be over-stimulated. Or you may have no symptoms at all. Your doctor may discover that you have hyperthyroidism while doing a test for another reason. Several treatment options are available if you have hyperthyroidism. Doctors use anti-thyroid medications and radioactive iodine to slow the production of thyroid hormones. Although hyperthyroidism can be fatal if it’s ignored, most people respond well once hyperthyroidism is diagnosed and treated.
Causes of Hyperthyroidism
The common Causes of Hyperthyroidism :
The body recognizes the thyroid antigens as foreign, and a chronic immune reaction ensues, resulting in lymphocytic infiltration of the gland and progressive destruction of functional thyroid tissue.
Drugs such as amiodarone, interferon alpha, thalidomide, and stavudine have also been associated with primary hypothyroidism.
One such medication is lithium, which is used to treat certain psychiatric disorders. If you’re taking medication, ask your doctor about its effect on your thyroid gland.
Other types of ‘thyroiditis’ (thyroid inflammation) caused by infection or other rare conditions.
Failure of the pituitary gland to secrete a hormone to stimulate the thyroid gland ( secondary hypothyroidism ) is a less common cause of hypothyroidism.
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, a disease of the thyroid gland where the body’s immune system attacks the gland.
Radiation used to treat cancers of the head and neck can affect your thyroid gland and may lead to hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Some Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism :
Inability to tolerate cold.
Menstrual irregularities in women
Slow body movements.
Treatment of Hyperthyroidism
Myxedema coma is a medical emergency that occurs when the body’s level of thyroid hormones becomes extremely low.
If a serious illness or infection triggered your hypothyroidism, your thyroid function most likely will return to normal when you recover.
After replacement therapy has begun, report any symptoms of increased thyroid activity ( hyperthyroidism ) such as restlessness, rapid weight loss, and sweating.
Surgery is indicated for large goiters that compromise tracheoesophageal function; surgery is rarely needed in patients with hypothyroidism and is more common in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
If you have mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism , you may not need treatment but should be watched for signs of worsening hypothyroidism current research does not provide clear evidence to support treatment, and many health professionals disagree about whether mild hypothyroidism should be treated.
Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is associated with preeclampsia, anemia, postpartum hemorrhage, cardiac ventricular dysfunction, spontaneous abortion, low birthweight, impaired cognitive development, and fetal mortality even mild disease may be associated with adverse affects for offspring.
Sometimes hypothyroidism is a temporary condition in older children. (This is not so for children who are born with an underactive thyroid.