Scabies is a common parasitic infection of global proportion. It is a skin Infection. Scabies caused by microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. Scabies characterized by superficial burrows, intense pruritus (itching) and secondary infection. Scabies can affect anyone regardless of age, gender, or personal hygiene. The scabies mite is an obligate parasite and completes its entire life cycle on humans. Scabies is contagious, and is usually transmitted by skin-to-skin contact or through sexual contact with someone else who is infected with it. Infestation is easily spread to sexual partners and household members. Infestation may also occur by sharing clothing, towels, and bedding. Scabies is transmitted readily, often throughout an entire household, by skin-to-skin contact with an infected person (e.g. bed partners, schoolmates, daycare). The S scabiei var hominis mite that infects humans is female and can just be seen with the naked eye (0.3-0.4 mm long). The male is about one half this size. The male fertilizes the female on human skin and then dies. Newly mated females burrow into human skin, using proteolytic enzymes to dissolve the stratum corneum of the epidermis. The mite has 4 pairs of legs and tracheal breaths and thus does not penetrate deeper than the outer layer of the epidermis. The female deposits eggs in the burrows, and then the eggs incubate and hatch after 3-5 days (range up to 8 d). About 90% of the hatched mites die, but those that survive go through various molting stages and reach maturity after a little more than 2 weeks. The female adults, who never leave their burrows, die after 1-2 months.
People with weakened immune systems and the elderly are at risk for a more severe form of scabies. The most common symptom of scabies is severe itching, which may be worse at night or after a hot bath. Scabies is frequently misdiagnosed as intense pruritus (itching of healthy skin) before papular eruptions form. Itching, often severe and usually worse at night. Scabies produces small bumps and blisters in the webs between the fingers, on the wrists and the backs of the elbows, in the groin and on the knees, and on the buttocks. Men sometimes get what look like pimples on their penis. It is helpful to know that not every bump is a bug. In most cases of scabies in otherwise healthy adults, there are no more than 10 or 15 live mites even if there are hundreds of bumps and pimples. The rash may become secondarily infected; scratching the rash may break the skin and make secondary infection more likely. In persons with severely reduced immunity, such as those with HIV infection, or people being treated with immunosuppressive drugs like steroids, a widespread rash with thick scaling may result. This variety of scabies is called Norwegian scabies. The areas of the body most commonly affected by scabies are the hands and feet (especially the webs of skin between the fingers and toes), the inner part of the wrists, and the folds under the arms.
Many Treatment available for Scabies. The treatment of scabies has undergone developments with the evolution of new treatment strategies and antiectoparasitic drugs. Medication most commonly used to kill the mites is called Elimite (or permethrin cream). The medication is applied from the head area to the bottom of the feet. It is left on for 10-14 hours and then washed off in the shower. It is best to apply at bedtime and then wash off in the morning. This treatment is then repeated in 1 week. This is safe for use in children as young as 2 months. Many of the Head Lice Treatment products that are on the market can be fatally harmful to your child because of the dangerous chemicals that are used as ingredients and can only be used a few times ever. Lindane has been used successfully for many years but is less effective than permethrin. Complementary therapies have not been proved to be effective at treating scabies. Treatment generally involves applying a medicated lotion to your entire body. This lotion should be applied from the neck downwards, paying special attention to skin folds around the wrist, knees, and elbows, and to the webbing between the fingers. Non-Toxic Enzyme based Bed Bug Treatment can be used to clean your home and treat the bugs and bites on your body.
Home remedy for Scabies Tips
1.Fresh juice of apricot leaves should be extracted and applied over the infected area. It has beneficial results in the treatment of scabies.
2.Make a neem leaf paste with fresh or dried neem leaves and an equal quantity of turmeric powder mixed with mustard oil. This should be applied on the body and left for an hour or so. Then the person should bath. Repeat for 7- 10 days till all lesions have healed.
3.The dried bark of a peepul tree can be powdered fine, strained through a fine sieve and used as a dusting powder on lesions of scabies.
4.Extract the juice from 400 – 500 gm of drumstick leaves. Mix with an equal amount of sesame seed oil, and boil till the water dries up. Cool and store. Apply daily over the infected parts. Both have strong anti-microbial properties.
5.Apply lotions containing gamma benzene hexachloride or sulphur, available in the market under trade names such as scabiol and gammascab. These should be applied on the whole skin below the neck at night. All the red bumps should be scratched before application.
6.Avoid physical contact with infected persons and their belongings, especially clothing and bedding.