Fungal Skin Infection

Skin infections are common and may be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Staphylococcal aureus bacteria are classified as Gram-positive cocci based on their appearance under a microscope. taph infections in other parts of the body are less common than staph skin infections. They are more likely in people whose immune systems have been weakened by another disease. Staph infections can spread from person to person among those who live close together in group situations. They may occur singly or grouped in pairs, short chains or grape-like clusters. They are usually facultative anaerobes, that is, they are capable of surviving at various levels of oxygenation, and are generally very hardy organisms. Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus , a type of bacteria. Staph infections can spread from person to person among those who live close together in group situations. S aureus produces a number of cellular and extracellular products, including exotoxins and coagulase, which contribute to the pathogenicity of impetigo, especially when coupled with preexisting tissue injury.

There are more than 30 species in the staph family of bacteria, and they can cause different kinds of illnesses — for example, one kind of staph can cause urinary tract infections. People with poor leg circulation, for instance, often develop scaly redness on the shins and ankles; this is called “stasis dermatitis” and is often mistaken for the bacterial infection of cellulitis. andidal infections occur in moist areas, such as the vulva, mouth, skinfolds and diaper area. Poor hygiene with a woman who has candidal vulvovaginitis add additional risk. Grayish-white deposits on an inflamed base are noted on the penile prepuce and glans. The infection most commonly develops in episiotomy sites or abdominal incision sites. Persons with diabetes or alcoholism may contract the illness without preceding trauma. Subcutaneous gas production occurs when clostridial organisms are present, but multiple organisms are generally found in wound cultures.

Candidal diaper rash occurs in infants when poorly absorbent, moisture-trapping diapers are used. Scattered small, reddish lesions with a scaly surrounding “collarette” are present. Use of an imidazole cream and regularly allowing the diaper area to be exposed to air usually clear the rash. Long-term use of imidazole and steroid creams is discouraged and unnecessarily exposes the infant to the risk of adverse topical effects and suppression of the adrenal axis from steroids. Treatment involves the use of imidazole creams and keeping the feet dry by frequently changing socks, avoiding occlusive footwear and applying an antiperspirant to the soles of the feet. Occasionally, systemic treatment is warranted in patients with resistant or particularly painful lesions, especially the hyperkeratotic variety. Crusts should be removed before the ointment is applied. Soak a soft, clean cloth in a mixture of one-half cup of white vinegar and a quart of lukewarm water.