Diabetes Mellitus – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that prevents the body from utilizing glucose completely or partially. It is characterized by raised glucose concentration in the blood. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with “sweet urine,” and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world.

There are two types of diabetes mellitus are found. This are-

* Type I diabetes mellitus is also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus.
* Type II diabetes mellitus is also referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or adult onset diabetes mellitus (AODM).


Type 2 diabetes results from a complex interaction of environmental factors and predisposing genetic factors. Environmental factors such as diet and activity levels interact with genetic causes to influence the development of type 2 diabetes. The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in the United States over the last 20 years as the percentage of persons who are obese increases.

It’s not clear why this happens, but a number of explanations and possible triggers of this reaction have been proposed. These include:

* infection with a specific virus or bacteria;
* exposure to food-borne chemical toxins; and
* exposure as a very young infant to cow’s milk, where an as yet unidentified component of this triggers the autoimmune reaction in the body.


Excess weight increases the heart’s work. It also raises blood pressure and blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and lowers HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels. It can also make diabetes more likely to develop.

Symptoms include:

* Being very thirsty
* Urinating a lot — often at night
* Blurry vision from time to time
* Feeling tired much of the time
* Losing weight without trying
* Very dry skin
* Sores that are slow to heal
* Getting more infections than usual
* Losing feeling or getting a tingling feeling in the feet
* Vomiting


The goal of treatment is to keep blood-sugar levels as close to normal as possible. Emphasis is on control of blood sugar (glucose) by monitoring the levels, regular physical activity, meal planning, and routine healthcare. Treatment of diabetes is an ongoing process of management and education that includes not only the child with diabetes, but also family members.

In general, the more active you are, the lower your blood sugar. Physical activity causes sugar to be transported to your cells, where it’s used for energy, thereby lowering the levels in your blood. Aerobic exercises such as brisk walking, jogging or biking are especially good.

Once the levels of sugar in the blood return to normal, insulinSome Trade Name HUMULIN and NOVOLIN production decreases. The variation in blood sugar levels is usually within a narrow range, about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. If a person has eaten a large amount of carbohydrates, the levels may increase more. People older than 65 years tend to have slightly higher levels, especially after eating.