Cavernous hemangiomas are the most common intraorbital tumors found in adults. These common birthmarks usually become symptomatic in older children, with bluish skin discoloration, local swelling, and pain. Cavernous hemangiomas arise from the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels and consist of multiple, large vascular channels lined by a single layer of endothelial cells and supported by collagenous walls. These tumors are frequently asymptomatic and incidentally discovered at imaging, surgery, or autopsy. Hemangiomas are uncommon in cirrhotic livers; the fibrotic process in cirrhotic liver may prohibit their development. Hemangiomas can occur in individuals of any age. The tumors frequently occur in middle-aged women.
A cavernous hemangioma in the skin extends more deeply than a capillary hemangioma and is less likely to regress spontaneously. Cavernous malformations tend to grow because of repeated small hemorrhages, or leaking of blood around the abnormal tissue. Henderson reported an incidence of 4.3% among orbital neoplasms. Cavernous malformations range in size from less than one-quarter inch to the size of a small orange. They occur equally in men and women and have been found in people of almost all ages. Cavernous hemangiomas are the most common symptomatic vascular malformations (birthmark). These common birthmarks usually become symptomatic in older children or young adults, with bluish skin discoloration, local swelling, and pain.
Some of large head and neck venous malformations are associated with sinus pericranii and developmental intracranial venous anomalies. There are three main treatment options for cavernous malformations observation, surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery. Surgery is the most common treatment option when treatment is necessary. Sclerotherapy is generally considered less invasive and more effective treatment modality. Most patients (approximately 60-80%) benefit from sclerotherapy. Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of symptomatic low-flow vascular malformations. Radiofrequency ablation is commonly used for cancers of the liver, kidneys, lung and bone. Use of the carbon dioxide laser or yag laser is another modality for the surgeon faced with the task of tumor removal.